Altered gut microbiota in Rett syndrome (Alterazioni del microbiota intestinale nella sindrome di Rett)

Book Cover: Altered gut microbiota in Rett syndrome (Alterazioni del microbiota intestinale nella sindrome di Rett)
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Editions:ePub

Il lavoro affronta uno dei temi caldi della ricerca biologica: le modificazioni del microbiota nell’ambito di possibili alterazioni della funzione cerebrale a partenza dalle complesse relazioni entero-cerebrali.

In questo articolo il comunicato di presentazione

Francesco Strati, Duccio Cavalieri, Davide Albanese, Claudio De Felice, Claudio Donati, Joussef Hayek, Olivier Jousson, Silvia Leoncini, Massimo Pindo, Daniela Renzi, Lisa Rizzetto, Irene Stefanini, Antonio Calabrò and Carlotta De Filippo Altered gut microbiota in Rett syndrome, "Microbiome" 2016, 4:41.

DOI: 10.1186/s40168-016-0185-y (Published: 30 July 2016).

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Abstract

Background

The human gut microbiota directly affects human health, and its alteration can lead to gastrointestinal abnormalities and inflammation. Rett syndrome (RTT), a progressive neurological disorder mainly caused by mutations in MeCP2 gene, is commonly associated with gastrointestinal dysfunctions and constipation, suggesting a link between RTT’s gastrointestinal abnormalities and the gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial and fungal gut microbiota in a cohort of RTT subjects integrating clinical, metabolomics and metagenomics data to understand if changes in the gut microbiota of RTT subjects could be associated with gastrointestinal abnormalities and inflammatory status.

APPROFONDISCI

Results

Our findings revealed the occurrence of an intestinal sub-inflammatory status in RTT subjects as measured by the elevated values of faecal calprotectin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. We showed that, overall, RTT subjects harbour bacterial and fungal microbiota altered in terms of relative abundances from those of healthy controls, with a reduced microbial richness and dominated by microbial taxa belonging to Bifidobacterium, several Clostridia (among which Anaerostipes, Clostridium XIVa, Clostridium XIVb) as well as Erysipelotrichaceae, Actinomyces, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Eggerthella, Escherichia/Shigella and the fungal genus Candida.

We further observed that alterations of the gut microbiota do not depend on the constipation status of RTT subjects and that this dysbiotic microbiota produced altered short chain fatty acids profiles.

Conclusions

We demonstrated for the first time that RTT is associated with a dysbiosis of both the bacterial and fungal component of the gut microbiota, suggesting that impairments of MeCP2 functioning favour the establishment of a microbial community adapted to the costive gastrointestinal niche of RTT subjects. The altered production of short chain fatty acids associated with this microbiota might reinforce the constipation status of RTT subjects and contribute to RTT gastrointestinal physiopathology.

COMPATTA
Reviews:Daniela Mariani Cerati ha scritto:

Il lavoro affronta uno dei temi caldi della ricerca biologica: le modificazioni del microbiota nell’ambito di possibili alterazioni della funzione cerebrale a partenza dalle complesse relazioni entero – cerebrali.
“A strict relationship between the gut microbiota and the central nervous system (CNS) has been observed, and numerous studies have shown alterations of the gut microbiota in the heterogeneous group of neurological disorders belonging to the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) [14]. In addition, the gut microbiota may modulate CNS activities through neural, endocrine, metabolic and immune pathways [15] affecting complex physiological and behavioural states of the host [15, 16] “
Partire da una condizione monogenica ben caratterizzata come la sindrome di Rett è una strada meno problematica per passare dalle ipotesi teoriche all’evidenza dei dati, ma un ostacolo non piccolo è dato dalla rarità di tali condizioni e dalla conseguente difficoltà ad avere campioni numericamente significativi.
Questo ed altri ostacoli sono stati superati da un gruppo multidisciplinare e multicentrico di ricercatori italiani, a dimostrazione delle grandi risorse della ricerca biologica italiana e delle grandi capacità organizzative che uno studio di questo tipo richiede.


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